Inderwildi E. & W. Müller
(* = Kurzbeitrag)
Auswirkungen eines langfristigen Artenförderungsprogramms auf Verbreitung und Bestand des Wachtelkönigs Crex crex in der Schweiz.
(von 1994 bis 2006 vergeben)
Bestand, Bestandesentwicklung, Brutstatus, Verbreitung, Phänologie, Höhenverteilung, Mahdaufschub, Vertragsnaturschutz, Landwirtschaft
Kanton Zürich, Kanton St. Gallen, Kanton Luzern, Kanton Schwyz, Kanton Neuenburg, Kanton Graubünden, Berner Oberland, Schweiz
Effects of a long-term recovery project for Corncrake Crex crex in Switzerland. The Corncrake Crex crex used to be a widespread breeding bird in Switzerland. However, at the end of the 19th century and in particular in the first half of the 20th century the population declined markedly. In the 1980s and the early 1990s the species was still recorded in Switzerland but was no longer breeding regularly. In 1996, SVS/BirdLife Switzerland started a species recovery project which monitors the population and aims at improving the conditions for successful breeding. Since 1996, breeding has been confirmed in almost every year, with a total of 50 breeding records over the 18 years until 2013. Population size, measured as the number of calling males, fluctuated between 12 and 87. Corncrakes occurred sporadically across the whole country but most stationary birds and confirmed broods were found in the canton of Grisons. In earlier times Corncrakes were mostly breeding in the lowland areas of the Swiss Plateau, whereas today most breeding records come from mountainous regions. Breeding phenology has changed as well with many birds arriving in Switzerland only in June. Earlier records indicate that Corncrakes used to arrive at the end of April or in May, as is still common in other countries with larger populations. The changes in temporal and spatial occurrence reflect the changes in agricultural land use. In lowland areas meadows are too dense and are mowed far too early to offer a suitable habitat for Corncrakes when they arrive from their winter quarters in Africa. At higher altitude meadows reach an optimal height only later in the season. Corncrakes arriving in June or July are likely to arrive from other regions after having lost their broods due to mowing or after having successfully completed their first brood. Without the contracts offered as part of the BirdLife project to allow compensating farmers for late mowing Corncrakes would not have the possibility to breed successfully in Switzerland. A continuation of the species recovery project is essential to prevent extinction of this critically endangered species.
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