Rehsteiner, U. & R. Spaar
(* = Kurzbeitrag)
Förderung des Kiebitzes Vanellus vanellus in der Schweiz: eine Übersicht über Grundlagen und Zukunftsaussichten.
(von 1994 bis 2006 vergeben)
Bestandesentwicklung, Lebensraum, Vegetation, Nahrungsangebot, Störung, Bruterfolg, Prädation, Überleben, Mortalität, Feuchtgebiet, Landwirtschaft, Kulturland, Bodenbrüter, Emigration, Immigration, Ansiedlung, Brutkolonie, Sozialsystem, Jagd, Artenförderung, Fördermassnahmen, Artenschutz, Naturschutzgebiet, Aktionsplan
Vanellus vanellus, Vulpes vulpes
Conservation of Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus in Switzerland: a short review of current knowledge and prospects for the future. The population of Northern Lapwings in Europe decreased by about 40 % during the last decades. In Switzerland, the decrease was with about 90 % even more massive, and the last survey revealed only about 100 breeding pairs, compared to over 1000 in the mid 1970s. The main causes of this decline are: (1) habitat loss due to the destruction of wetlands (wet habitats) and as a consequence of unsuitable habitat structures and decreasing soil moisture in the remaining wetlands, and (2) the agricultural intensification. Unfavourable factors such as an increase in human disturbance, an increase of predator abundance, a high hunting pressure in the wintering areas in southern Europe as well as reduced immigration from abroad might have contributed to the decline. Almost all remaining breeding colonies in Switzerland are small and hold less than 20 breeding pairs. As a consequence, it is very likely that the advantages of collective breeding do not work anymore.
70 % of Swiss Lapwings settle within a range of 20 km of the previous breeding site in the following year, but about 10 % of the birds are dispersing more than 200 km. A conservation strategy has therefore to aim at protecting and restoring local colonies on a small scale, as well as to maintain a large-scale network of populations and potential habitats.
Formerly occupied and potential habitats might be restored by lifting water tables and recreating specific habitat structures. Succession of the vegetation has to be stopped in suitable wetlands. Lapwing habitats should be protected from destruction and fragmentation.
Appropriate instruments in Switzerland to conserve and restore breeding sites are (1) ecological compensation measures in agriculture, (2) appropriate wetland management and (3) specific habitat creation, e.g. in river restoration projects. Nest protection by fencing is an appropriate measure to enhance breeding success in the short term. The problem of hunting has to be addressed on an international level.
The vision for Switzerland is to promote a condensed network of suitable breeding sites, each for at least 10–30 breeding pairs, i.e. of a size of 10–30 ha. Experts should supervise every colony. An action plan would be an appropriate tool to define the goals and measures to restore viable Lapwing colonies in Switzerland as well as to coordinate the different activities between the many partners, namely farmers, cantons, confederation, ornithologists, etc.
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