Puchta, A., J. Ulmer, A. Schönenberger & B. Burtscher
(* = Kurzbeitrag)
Zur Situation des Kiebitzes Vanellus vanellus im Vorarlberger Alpenrheintal.
(von 1994 bis 2006 vergeben)
Brutgebiet, Bestandesaufnahme, Bestandesentwicklung, Beststandesdichte, Population, Brutverlauf, Lebensraum, Feuchtgebiet, Streuwiese, Landwirtschaft, Kulturland, Bodenbrüter, Reviergrösse, Thermologger, Gelege, Gelegeverlust, Schlüpferfolg, Kükenverlust, Brutversuch, Bruterfolg, Prädation, Abschusszahlen, Abwehrverhalten, Brutkolonie, Störung, Artenschutz
Vanellus vanellus, Numenius arquata, Buteo buteo, Corvus corone, Milvus migrans, Vulpes vulpes, Meles meles, Martes foina, Mustela erminea, Felis catus
Kiebitz, Grosser Brachvogel, Mäusebussard, Rabenkrähe, Schwarzmilan, Rotfuchs, Dachs, Steinmarder, Hermelin, Hauskatze
Österreich, Vorarlberger Rheintal, Birken, Gleggen, Auer Ried, Widnauer Ried, Lauteracher Ried
Situation of Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus in the Austrian Rhine Valley. This study presents a first survey of the situation of Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus in the Austrian Rhine Valley, which is one of the most important breeding areas of meadow birds in Austria. Here, Lapwings were breeding until the beginning of the 21st century almost exclusively on unimproved wet meadows, whereas arable land was used for replacement clutches only. In 2007 and 2008 we recorded a total of 82 and 64 breeding pairs in our study area. In 2007, 32 % of clutches were found on unimproved wet meadows, in 2008 only 16 %. Overall, we determined a breeding success of 0.61 fledglings per breeding pair in the first study year, but on unimproved wet meadows we recorded a single fledgling only. Due to high losses of clutches (87 %) and chicks (at least 67 % of first clutches and at least 97 % of replacement clutches) the breeding success was very low in 2008, with only five chicks fledging (0.08 fledglings per breeding pair). 72–74 % of clutches were lost by predation. By placing automated temperature loggers in 9 Lapwing nests in 2008, the time of predation could be determined: Nest predation occurred exclusively during the hours of darkness. Therefore we assume that nocturnal mammals were responsible for the majority of clutch losses. It is likely that the main cause of chick losses was predation, too. By observing breeding pairs and families from early morning until dusk on 31st May and 13th June 2007 in the centre of the main breeding area, we were able to show that Lapwings have developed special behavioural strategies in response to increased predation by avian predators. However, the defence behaviour was effective only in nesting areas with a high nest density. Due to changes in the management of arable farmland, breeding conditions in 2008 were unfavourable and only few Lapwings were breeding in the same area. The low breeding success of Lapwing in our study area seems to be a result of an increasing predation rate on arable land, which was not colonized before the last 5–10 years, as well as a result of changes in agricultural practice in the most important breeding area.
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