Horch, P., U. Rehsteiner, A. Berger-Flückiger, M. Müller, H. Schuler & R. Spaar
(* = Kurzbeitrag)
Bestandsrückgang des Braunkehlchens Saxicola rubetra in der Schweiz, mögliche Ursachen und Evaluation von Fördermassnahmen.
(von 1994 bis 2006 vergeben)
Verbreitung, Bestandesentwicklung, Höhenverbreitung, Lebensraum, Habitatwahl, Brutbeginn, Brutperiode, Bruterfolg, Artenschutz, Habitatschutz, Habitatoptimierung, wiesenbrüterfreundliche Landwirtschaft, Mahd, Wiese, Weide, Nahrungsangebot, Schutzmassnahmen, Fördermassnahmen, Vernetzungsprojekt, Zielart, Feuchtgebietsmanagement, Lebensraummosaik, Auszäunung, Nesterschutz, Anlockung
Saxicola rubetra, Alauda arvensis, Phoenicurus phoenicurus, Crex crex, Coturnix coturnix, Anthus trivialis, Rallus aquaticus, Vanellus vanellus, Gallinago gallinago, Numenius arquata, Anthus pratensis, Saxicola torquatus, Locustella luscinioides, Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, Acrocephalus arundinaceus
Braunkehlchen, Feldlerche, Gartenrotschwanz, Wachtelkönig, Wachtel, Baumpieper, Wasserralle, Kiebitz, Bekassine, Grosser Brachvogel, Wiesenpieper, Schwarzkehlchen, Rohrschwirl, Schilfrohrsänger, Drosselrohrsänger
Schweiz, Bern, Freiburg, Graubünden, Neuenburg, St. Gallen, Tessin, Wallis, Zürich, Bodenseeregion, Österreich, Vorarlberg, Oberösterreich, Fürstentum Liechtenstein, Deutschland, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Jura, Frankreich, Elsass, Haut-Rhin
Causes for the strong decline of the Whinchat Saxicola rubetra population in Switzerland and evaluation of conservation measures. In Switzerland, the Whinchat Saxicola rubetra is a threatened meadow-breeder, which has declined rapidly since around 1930. Apart from a few remnant populations, it has disappeared from the lowland Plateau and is now restricted to low-intensity grassland in the montane and subalpine regions. Whinchat populations are declining in most regions in Switzerland and the adjacent countries (French parts of the Jura and Alsace, Southern Germany, Liechtenstein and Austria). Within the framework of the Swiss Species Recovery Programme for Birds, the Swiss Ornithological Institute and SVS/BirdLife Switzerland implement schemes in several regions in collaboration with local partners. The tested schemes comprise protection and creation of habitat (large-scale measures), habitat improvement (small-scale measures) and species protection (nest protection and luring to improved habitats). The schemes have shown mixed effects. Large-scale late-cut flower meadows turned out to be the only promising scheme. Such late-cut meadow plots or strips should make up at least 15–20 % of a suitable grassland area. The late-cut parts have to be connected and cover at least 10–20 ha. The late-cut flower meadows should be implemented where Whinchats are known to have had territories the year before. Leaving some grass strips uncut may be attractive for Whinchats especially when prominent tall plants are present which can be used as vantage points. Herbaceous strips can also serve as food source. However, they too should be at least 8 m wide and 100 m long. In homogeneous grassland, randomly spread, small flower meadows with less than 4 % late-cut plots or strips hardly contribute to favour Whinchat populations.
The remnant Whinchat populations on the lowland Plateau have to be sustained and expanded. At the same time, the population strongholds in the montane and subalpine regions have to be preserved. For this, more emphasis has to be put on ecological (upland) farming, in which services for biodiversity are remunerated better. Training and advice of farmers is essential to make them familiar with ecological aspects and to show them the perspectives and advantages of ecological farming. Label products with an added value for nature have to be promoted and consumers have to be informed better.
On the whole, the promotion of Whinchats is complex. There will be no way around a large-scale management of suitable meadows if we are to save the Whinchat from further declining. All activities, from policy amendments to farm management have to be coordinated towards this goal. The necessary legal, financial and structural conditions exist in part, but adjustments are still necessary.
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